Evaluation of Innate Immune Biomarkers in Saliva for Diagnostic Potential of Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Infection

ntisPersonal Author Burdette, A. J.; Alvarez, R.
Military group housing, training facilities, and operational theatres, combined with high stress, presents unique environments for dissemination and propagation of transmitting bacterial and viral infections. While often associated with mild illness, severe disease may occur with significant morbidity, leading to a detrimental impact on training schedules and operational readiness. Current diagnosis and monitoring of infections require invasive procedures by skilled technicians, including repeated blood draws, making it difficult for in-theatre care. Therefore, there remains a critical need for a rapid, sensitive assay for detection and diagnosis of microbial infections in our warfighters, both in garrison and in theatre. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of innate immune biomarkers in saliva associated with bacterial and viral respiratory infections, as compared to markers present in serum samples. A panel of 28 cytokines and chemokines in saliva and serum obtained from 38 healthy subjects and 19 bacterially infected or virally infected individuals were analyzed via bio-plex analysis. A unique set of innate immune biomarkers identified in saliva from infected patients allowing for differentiation between bacterial and viral infections. Continued study may lead to improved prognosis, treatment and an overall decrease in the use of antibiotics.
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