Optimization of Water-Level Monitoring Networks in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer Using a Kriging-Based Genetic Algorithm Method. PB2014104612

Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision.
Personal Author Fisher, J. C.
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Process Tolerant Single Photolithography/Implantation 120-Zone Junction Termination Extension. ADA579578

The multiple-zone junction termination extension (MJTE) is a widely used SiC edge termination technique that reduces sensitivity to implantation dose variations. It is typically implemented in multiple lithography and implantation events. To reduce process complexity, cycle time, and cost, a single photolithography/implantation (P/I) MJTE technique was developed and diodes with 3-zone and 120-zone JTEs were fabricated on the same wafer. Here, the process tolerance of the single (P/I) MJTE technique is evaluated by performing CCD monitored blocking voltage measurements on diodes from the same wafer with the 3-zone and 120-zone single (P/I) JTE. The 3-zone JTE diodes exhibited catastrophic localized avalanches at the interface between the 2nd and 3rd zones due to abrupt zone transitions. Diodes with the smooth transitioning 120-zone JTE exhibited no CCD detectable avalanches in their JTE regions up to the testing limit of 12 kV. Under thick dielectric (deposited for on-wafer diode interconnection), diodes with the single P/I 3-zone JTE failed due to significant loss of high-voltage capability, while their 120-zone JTE diode counterparts were minimally affected. Overall, the single (P/I) 120-zone JTE provides a processtolerant and robust single P/I edge termination at no additional fabrication labor.
Personal Author Veliadis, V.; Snook, M.; Hearne, H.; Nechay, B.; Woodruff, S. For more info please contact NTIS 800-553-6847 Mon – Fri 8am – 5pm est