Synthesis of Carbonate-Based Micro/Nanoscale Particles With Controlled Morphology and Mineralogy

images[8]Biological structural materials such as bone, nacre and fish scales utilize unique material structures and chemistry, especially nanoscale structures to provide high strength as well as high ductility. To incorporate these design principles into the material design, novel synthesis methods need to be developed to fabricate composites with controlled morphology, orientation, organization and chemistry at nanoscale. In this study, the mineralogy and morphology of carbonate-based micro/nanoscale particles precipitated by reacting (NH4)2CO3 with mixed Ca, Sr, Mg, and Mn-acetates was investigated. As the proportion of the non-Ca component increased, the products shifted toward double carbonates and mixtures of double carbonates with single carbonates. Characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine crystal sizes, morphology, and structure of precipitated phases indicated a potential for re-crystallizing the products to form new composite materials. Ongoing research efforts are focused on using information obtained in the present study to develop composites by hydrothermal recrystallization of metastable phases.
Personal Author J. C. Weiss K. Torres-Cancel M. Q. Chandler P. G. Allison R. D. Moser
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Climate Change: Energy Infrastructure Risks and Adaptation Efforts

images[2]According to the NRC and the USGCRP, changes in the earth’s climate–including higher temperatures, changes in precipitation, rising sea levels, and increases in the severity and frequency of severe weather events–are under way and expected to grow more severe over time. These impacts present significant risks to the nation’s energy infrastructure. Economic losses arising from weather-related events–including floods, droughts, and storms–have been large and are increasing, according to USGCRP. Adaptation–an adjustment to natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate change–is a risk-management strategy to help protect vulnerable sectors and communities that might be affected by climate change. GAO was asked to examine the vulnerability of the nation’s energy infrastructure to climate change impacts. This report examines: (1) what is known about potential impacts of climate change on U.S. energy infrastructure; (2) measures that can reduce climate-related risks and adapt energy infrastructure to climate change; and (3) the role of the federal government in adapting energy infrastructure and adaptation steps selected federal entities have taken. GAO reviewed climate change assessments; analyzed relevant studies and agency documents; and interviewed federal agency officials and industry stakeholders, including energy companies at four sites that have implemented adaptive measures. Personal Author N/A
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553-6847 Mon – Fri 8am – 5pm est.