Pulse Jet Mixing Tests with Noncohesive Solids.

OSTIexterior_0This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for disturbing a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP.
Personal Author Meyer, P. A.; Enderlin, C. W.; Wells, B. E.; Scott, P. A.; Smith, G. L.
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Comment on ‘Mode Conversion of Waves in the Ion-Cyclotron Frequency Range in Magnetospheric Plasmas

imagesCAXAYMHCRecently, Kazakov and FOulOop (1) studied mode conversion (MC) at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance in planetary magnetospheric plasmas by simplifying the dispersion relation of the fast wave (FW) modes to describe a cutoff-resonance (CR) pair near the IIH resonance, which can be reduced to a Budden problem. They suggested that when the IIH resonance frequency (omegas) approaches the crossover frequency (omega cr), and the parallel wavenumber (k bar bar) is close to the critical wavenumber (k star bar bar)(omega s= omega cr), MC can be efficient for arbitrary heavy ion density ratios.
Author: E. H. Kim J. R. Johnson
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Human Paraoxonase Double Mutants Hydrolyze V and G Class Organophosphorus Nerve Agents.

Variants of human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are being developed as catalytic bioscavengers for the organophosphorus chemical warfare agents (OP). It is preferable that the new PON1 variants have broad spectrum hydrolase activities to hydrolyze both G- and V-class OPs. H115W PON1 has shown improvements over wild type PON1 in its capacity to hydrolyze some OP compounds. We improved upon these activities either by substituting a tryptophan (F347W) near the putative active site residues for enhanced substrate binding or by reducing a bulky group (Y71A) at the periphery of the putative enzyme active site. When compared to H115W alone, we found that H115W/Y71A and H115W/F347W maintained VX catalytic efficiency but showed mixed results for the capacity to hydrolyze paraoxon. Testing our double mutants against racemic sarin, we observed reduced values of KM for H115W/F347W that modestly improved catalytic efficiency over wild type and H115W. Contrary to previous reports, we show that H115W can hydrolyze soman, and the double mutant H115W/Y71A is nearly 4-fold more efficient than H115W for paraoxon hydrolysis. We also observed modest stereoselectivity for hydrolysis of the P(-) stereoisomer of tabun by H115W/F347W. These data demonstrate enhancements made in PON1 for the purpose of developing an improved catalytic bioscavenger to protect cholinesterase against chemical warfare agents.Personal Author B. J. Bahnson D. M. Cerasoli J. R. Norris J. R. Smith S. D. Kirby
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