Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment – Detector, Trigger and Physics. DE20121030553

Personal Author Aad, G.; Abat, E.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN promises a major step forward in the understanding of the fundamental nature of matter. The ATLAS experiment is a general-purpose detector for the LHC, whose design was guided by the need to accommodate the wide spectrum of possible physics signatures. The major remit of the ATLAS experiment is the exploration of the TeV mass scale where groundbreaking discoveries are expected. In the focus are the investigation of the electroweak symmetry breaking and linked to this the search for the Higgs boson as well as the search for Physics beyond the Standard Model. In this report a detailed examination of the expected performance of the ATLAS detector is provided, with a major aim being to investigate the experimental sensitivity to a wide range of measurements and potential observations of new physical processes. An earlier summary of the expected capabilities of ATLAS was compiled in 1999 (1). A survey of physics capabilities of the CMS detector was published in (2). The design of the ATLAS detector has now been finalised, and its construction and installation have been completed (3). An extensive test-beam programme was undertaken. Furthermore, the simulation and reconstruction software code and frameworks have been completely rewritten. Revisions incorporated reflect improved detector modelling as well as major technical changes to the software technology. Greatly improved understanding of calibration and alignment techniques, and their practical impact on performance, is now in place. The studies reported here are based on full simulations of the ATLAS detector response.
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Optimization of Water-Level Monitoring Networks in the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer Using a Kriging-Based Genetic Algorithm Method. PB2014104612

Long-term groundwater monitoring networks can provide essential information for the planning and management of water resources. Budget constraints in water resource management agencies often mean a reduction in the number of observation wells included in a monitoring network. A network design tool, distributed as an R package, was developed to determine which wells to exclude from a monitoring network because they add little or no beneficial information. A kriging-based genetic algorithm method was used to optimize the monitoring network. The algorithm was used to find the set of wells whose removal leads to the smallest increase in the weighted sum of the (1) mean standard error at all nodes in the kriging grid where the water table is estimated, (2) root-mean-squared-error between the measured and estimated water-level elevation at the removed sites, (3) mean standard deviation of measurements across time at the removed sites, and (4) mean measurement error of wells in the reduced network. The solution to the optimization problem (the best wells to retain in the monitoring network) depends on the total number of wells removed; this number is a management decision.
Personal Author Fisher, J. C.
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Physics of Solar Flares and Development of Statistical and Data Driven Models. ADA591356

Solar flares impact DoD and civilian space- and ground-based assets. The current state of predictability of solar flares, such as the probability of a solar flare occurring (NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, and USAF/AFWA) are evaluated based on once-a-day measurement and resultant change of solar activity parameters, such as sunspot magnetic classification. With the advent of the USAF s prototype Improved Solar Observing Optical Network telescope, we have the capability to monitor rapid changes in characteristics of the solar chromosphere (1-minute cadence), photosphere (5-minute cadence) and corona (10- minute cadence). We will also use the GOES x-ray data (1-minute cadence) and other space data to complement these measurements. These data sources of past and current data will help us research, track and establish the relationship between the high-cadence variation of measured parameters at the various layers (sunspot umbral and penumbral areas, plage index, magnetic flux, sequential chromospheric brightenings, development of flare ribbons, etc.) and solar flares. We will research the seemingly heterogeneous and voluminous parameterized observational data to understand the measures needed for flare forecasts, incorporating such techniques as principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, genetic algorithms and neural networks. The goal is to demonstrate parameters that could be used in real-time operations to predict the near-term probability of flare occurrence. This research will help gain insights into physical mechanisms of the flaring proF298cess. It will aid in the development of physics-based solar flare forecast models. This report provides the final summary of the work performed under this AFOSR task. Individual and interim technical work has been published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in professional society meetings as appropriate
Personal Author Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Norquist, D. C.; Henry, T.; Kirk, M.
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Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography. A Collection of Papers. PB2015102586

A collection of papers that examine cross-species comparisons of social environments with a focus on social behaviors along with social hierarchies and connections, to examine their effects on health, longevity, and life histories. This report covers a broad spectrum of nonhuman animals, exploring a variety of measures of position in social hierarchies and social networks, drawing links among these factors to health outcomes and trajectories, and comparing them to those in humans. Sociality, Hierarchy, Health revisits both the theoretical underpinnings of biodemography and the empirical findings that have emerged over the past two decades. Personal Author Lane, M. A.
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Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil and Curlyleaf Pondweed in Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana: Herbicide Small-Plot Evaluations, 2010-2011.

Noxon Rapids Reservoir, Montana, is one of several large impoundments on the Lower Clark Fork River, stretching for over 48 km (30 miles) with a surface area of approximately 3,120 ha (7,700 acres). Management strategies were evaluated for their effectiveness in controlling invasive plant problems in the reservoir, specifically with Eurasian watermilfoil and curlyleaf pond- weed. A 3-year field program was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of aquatic herbicides to selectively control the invasive plants. The herbicide endothall (Aquathol K) was applied to four plots totaling 5.5 ha (13.6 acres) at 3000 g ai/L (3 ppm); diquat (Reward ) was applied to four plots totaling 3.3 ha (8.1 acres) at 370 g ai/L (0.37 ppm); and a combination of both products was applied to four plots totaling 4.7 ha (11.5 acres), with endothall at 1500 g ai/L (1.5 ppm) and diquat at 190 g ai/L (0.19 ppm). Herbicides were applied by boat using a variable-depth injection system. Aqueous herbicide dissipation was monitored in selected plots. Bulk water exchange processes were also measured. Quantitative surveys were conducted in each plot to assess the plant community at pretreatment, and at 6 weeks and 52 weeks post treatment.
Personal Author Getsinger, K. D.; Skogerboe, J. G.; Wersal, R. M.; Madsen, J. D.; Nawrocki, J. J.
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Evaluation of Innate Immune Biomarkers in Saliva for Diagnostic Potential of Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Infection

ntisPersonal Author Burdette, A. J.; Alvarez, R.
Military group housing, training facilities, and operational theatres, combined with high stress, presents unique environments for dissemination and propagation of transmitting bacterial and viral infections. While often associated with mild illness, severe disease may occur with significant morbidity, leading to a detrimental impact on training schedules and operational readiness. Current diagnosis and monitoring of infections require invasive procedures by skilled technicians, including repeated blood draws, making it difficult for in-theatre care. Therefore, there remains a critical need for a rapid, sensitive assay for detection and diagnosis of microbial infections in our warfighters, both in garrison and in theatre. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of innate immune biomarkers in saliva associated with bacterial and viral respiratory infections, as compared to markers present in serum samples. A panel of 28 cytokines and chemokines in saliva and serum obtained from 38 healthy subjects and 19 bacterially infected or virally infected individuals were analyzed via bio-plex analysis. A unique set of innate immune biomarkers identified in saliva from infected patients allowing for differentiation between bacterial and viral infections. Continued study may lead to improved prognosis, treatment and an overall decrease in the use of antibiotics.
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Process Tolerant Single Photolithography/Implantation 120-Zone Junction Termination Extension. ADA579578

The multiple-zone junction termination extension (MJTE) is a widely used SiC edge termination technique that reduces sensitivity to implantation dose variations. It is typically implemented in multiple lithography and implantation events. To reduce process complexity, cycle time, and cost, a single photolithography/implantation (P/I) MJTE technique was developed and diodes with 3-zone and 120-zone JTEs were fabricated on the same wafer. Here, the process tolerance of the single (P/I) MJTE technique is evaluated by performing CCD monitored blocking voltage measurements on diodes from the same wafer with the 3-zone and 120-zone single (P/I) JTE. The 3-zone JTE diodes exhibited catastrophic localized avalanches at the interface between the 2nd and 3rd zones due to abrupt zone transitions. Diodes with the smooth transitioning 120-zone JTE exhibited no CCD detectable avalanches in their JTE regions up to the testing limit of 12 kV. Under thick dielectric (deposited for on-wafer diode interconnection), diodes with the single P/I 3-zone JTE failed due to significant loss of high-voltage capability, while their 120-zone JTE diode counterparts were minimally affected. Overall, the single (P/I) 120-zone JTE provides a processtolerant and robust single P/I edge termination at no additional fabrication labor.
Personal Author Veliadis, V.; Snook, M.; Hearne, H.; Nechay, B.; Woodruff, S. For more info please contact NTIS 800-553-6847 Mon – Fri 8am – 5pm est

Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes (Update). PB2015102321

The purpose of this report is to systematically summarize the evidence on the relationship between vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium on selected health outcomes included in the earlier review: primarily those related to bone health, cardiovascular health, cancer, immune function, pregnancy, all-cause mortality, and vitamin D status; and to identify the vitamin D assay methods and procedures used for the interventional studies that aimed to assess the effect of vitamin D administration on serum 25(OH)D concentrations, and to stratify key outcomes by methods used to assay serum 25(OH)D concentrations.
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