Invasive Exotic Plant Monitoring in Capitol Reef National Park: Field Seasons 2009-2012

images[2] Invasive exotic plant (IEP) species are a significant threat to natural ecosystem integrity and biodiversity, and controlling them is a high priority for the National Park Service. The Northern Colorado Plateau Network (NCPN) selected the early detection of IEPs as one of 10 monitoring protocols to be implemented as part of its long-term monitoring program. This report documents invasive plant infestations detected at Capitol Reef National Park during 2012. It also covers all work completed from 2009 to 2012, which represents the first full rotation of desired monitoring routes and presents a rotational panel for future monitoring. During surveys conducted from 2009 to 2012, Capitol Reef National Park staff detected 14 IEP species on monitoring routes and transects comprising 94 kilometers along Cathedral Valley Road, Highway 24, Pleasant Creek, Oak Creek, and the Scenic Drive.Personal Author D. Perkins G. Lenhart For more info please
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Pre-Clinical Testing of New Hydroxybutyrate Analogues.

images[4]One of the hallmarks of Parkinson Disease is a deficit in Complex I of the mitochondrial complex chain in the tyrosine hydroxylase (THf)+ neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of the brain. This situation allows the dopamine neuron to be put under oxidative stress, thus leaving the DA neuron vulnerable to free radical attack. In attempts to reverse the deficit in Complex I in the cell, in earlier experiments, we used a ketone body, D-beta- hydroxybutyrate (DBHB) in the presence of MPTP to increase oxidative phosphorylation. This change in phosphorylation state afforded protection to the SNpc TH+neurons. One drawback to the use of DBHB is that it is short- acting. In our present experiment, we used a DBHB analogue, glyceryl tris(3- hydroxybutyrate, G3HB) which is the basic DBHB structure that has been altered. Compared to DBHB which increased DBHB levels in plasma by almost 100%, G3HB increased plasma DBHB levels by less than 50%, Increasing the assay sample volume increases brain tissue DBHB levels . In the in vivo studies, the combination of MPTP and G3HB seemed to cause significant mortality in the two strains of mice that we used. This high mortality rate may be strain or breeding house dependent. More studies need to be done to sort this situation out.Personal Author S. Przedborski V. Jackson-Lewis
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Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) in the Western Beaufort Sea. Final Report

images[2]The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement (formal title: The bowhead whale feeding variability in the western Beaufort Sea: feeding observations and oceanographic measurements and analyses) between the Minerals Management Service (MMS, now the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)) and the National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML). The goal of this 5-year study was to facilitate development of future oil and gas development-related mitigation by estimating relationships among bowhead whale prey, oceanographic conditions, and bowhead whale feeding behavior in the western Beaufort Sea, with emphasis on identifying predictable aspects in those relationships. The study had five principal objectives: 1. Document patterns and variability in the timing and locations of bowhead whales feeding in the western Beaufort Sea. 2. Estimate temporal and spatial patterns of habitat use by bowhead whales in the study area. 3. Document bowhead whale prey distributions and abundance in the immediate vicinity of feeding bowhead whales as well as in neighboring areas without whales. 4. Document fine scale oceanographic and other relevant environmental conditions both near feeding bowhead whales and in neighboring areas without whales. 5. Characterize oceanographic features on a coarse scale relative to the study area. Personal Author N/A For more info
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Harnessing the Power of Light to See and Treat Breast Cancer

images[9]Our objective is to exploit the wealth of physiological, metabolic, morphological and molecular sources of optical contrast to develop novel strategies that focus on two breast cancer applications: tumor margin assessment and prediction of response to neo-adjuvant therapy. The proposed aims of this grant are expected to result in three major contributions. The first has the most immediate impact. An optically based strategy that can quickly and non-destructively detect positive tumor margins will decrease the need for re-excision surgery and thereby decrease the local recurrence rate and rate of distant metastases in women electing BCS. Gaining insight into the physiological, metabolic, morphological and molecular sources of heterogeneity within and among tumors and how they are modulated by therapy, drug resistance and metastatic potential will directly benefit prognostication, prediction of outcome and planning of cancer therapies. With these tools, clinicians and clinical researchers can get a better understanding of this disease and how it might react to a drug. Basic science researchers could use it as an informed approach to study tumor biology and assay the effect of novel therapeutic agents in vivo. Personal Author N. Ramanujam
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Experimental Control of Sea Lampreys with Electricity on the South Shore of Lake Superior, 1953-60 Great

images[1]Experimental control of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, with electric barriers was begun in Lake Superior in 1953. Electrical devices were the most practical and promising method of control then available. Installed below spawning grounds in streams and rivers tributary to Lake Superior, these barriers were designed to prevent the sexually mature sea lampreys from reproducing. The catch of sea lampreys at the electric barriers increased rapidly from 1,668 in 1953 to 66,931 in 1958, The total catches dropped substantially in 1959 and 1960 to 52,173 and 39,783, respectively. Electric fields of sufficient intensity to block sea lampreys were potentially lethal to other fish and caused undesirable mortality. Improvements in design and installation, and the development of a directcurrent diversion device reduced the mortality and increased the efficiency of operation. The development of control by selective chemicals in 1958 superseded the barrier control system which was terminated at the end of the 1960 season. The electric barrier operation provided considerable information on mature sea lampreys, including data on time of migration, length, weight, and sex composition. Electric devices of the type and design used are capable of blocking entire runs of adult sea lampreys. An accurate appraisal of the effectiveness of the barrier system is impossible, however. Most of the barriers were not operated long enough to reduce the contribution of parasites from the streams. Furthermore, a complete system of efficient electric barriers was never realized. The greatest weakness of this method of control lies in maintenance of the units in continuous, uninterrupted operation through consecutive migratory seasons. Personal Author A. L. McLain B. R. Smith For more info go to: or call NTIS 1-800-553-6847 Mon – Fri 8am – 5pm est.

Dimensional Review of Scales for Forensic Photography.

images[3]Scales for forensic photography provide a geometrical reference in the photographic documentation of evidence. A common scale used by investigators is a plastic, L-shaped ruler that allows for a dimensional reference in the photographic documentation of evidence or a crime scene. The ABFO No. 2 Standard Reference Scale has received recognition by the forensic science community as a reliable and accurate reference scale; however, we have surveyed commercially available scales and found a lack of consistency in manufacturing processes and, consequently a lack of strict adherence to the standard. This study seeks to evaluate the quality of commercially available photo scales, document manufacturing processes, and suggest pathways for establishing standards for forensic photo scales that will serve as a means for ensuring accuracy and user confidence. Personal Author J. A. Neiman J. P. Jones M. Ferrucci R. Thompson S. M. Ballou T. D. Doiron
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Development of Alkaline Fuel Cells

images[2] This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.. For more info go to:
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