Evaluation of Innate Immune Biomarkers in Saliva for Diagnostic Potential of Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Infection

ntisPersonal Author Burdette, A. J.; Alvarez, R.
Military group housing, training facilities, and operational theatres, combined with high stress, presents unique environments for dissemination and propagation of transmitting bacterial and viral infections. While often associated with mild illness, severe disease may occur with significant morbidity, leading to a detrimental impact on training schedules and operational readiness. Current diagnosis and monitoring of infections require invasive procedures by skilled technicians, including repeated blood draws, making it difficult for in-theatre care. Therefore, there remains a critical need for a rapid, sensitive assay for detection and diagnosis of microbial infections in our warfighters, both in garrison and in theatre. The objective of this study was to explore the presence of innate immune biomarkers in saliva associated with bacterial and viral respiratory infections, as compared to markers present in serum samples. A panel of 28 cytokines and chemokines in saliva and serum obtained from 38 healthy subjects and 19 bacterially infected or virally infected individuals were analyzed via bio-plex analysis. A unique set of innate immune biomarkers identified in saliva from infected patients allowing for differentiation between bacterial and viral infections. Continued study may lead to improved prognosis, treatment and an overall decrease in the use of antibiotics.
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Critical Needs and Gaps in Understanding Prevention, Amelioration, and Resolution of Lyme and Other Tick-Borne Diseases: The Short-Term and Long-Term Outcomes: Workshop Report.

images[5]Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) represent some of the worlds most rapidly expanding arthropod-borne infectious diseases, yet significant gaps remain in our understanding and knowledge about them. In the United States, many tick-borne diseases such as anaplasmosis and the borrelioses, ehrlichioses, and rickettsioses are on the rise. Reasons include shifts in the prevalence and distribution of animal reservoirs and tick vectors as well as the movement of humans into areas where the animal hosts and tick populations are abundant. From a public health standpoint, the burden of disease is of growing concern, as is the incomplete understanding of the complex interactions of ticks, hosts, pathogens, and habitats that underlie changing disease patterns and the potential for climate change to exacerbate these trends.
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